Unterkirnach, Germany. Several generations of Blessing family members made musical clocks, hand-cranked barrel organs, mechanical pianos, barrel- and roll-operated orchestrions, circa 1805-1920s. Repair work was continued until the 1950s.

Berry-Wood Piano Player Co.

Kansas City, MO. Made coin pianos and Auto Orchestra keyboard-style orchestrions circa 1907 through the late ‘teens. Certain components were purchased from Engelhardt in St. Johnsville, NY.

Berni Organ Company

New York City. Founded by Louis Berni circa 1910-1920. Imported and sold many European fairground organs; a distributor of Wurlitzer band organs in the 1920s.

Böcker, Ernst, Organ and Orchestrion Company

New York City. Imported Imhof & Mukle, Hupfeld, and Weber orchestrions, Gebr. Bruder and Ruth fairground organs, early 1900s-1914. Extant Hupfeld Phonoliszt-Violinas that originally were used in the United States were imported by Böcker, so far as is known.

Bartl, Edmund

Vienna. Probably son of August Bartl. Maker of cylinder musical boxes in typical Austrian format mostly for clock bases. Started his business in 1881, probably working until 1922.

Bartl, August

Vienna. Maker of cylinder musical boxes in typical Austrian format mostly for clock bases, 1864-1882(?).

Baker-Troll & Company

Geneva, Switzerland. Made fine quality cylinder music boxes circa 1890s-early 1900s.


Berlin, Germany. Several generations of family members built pinned cylinder and paper roll-operated mechanical organs from 1870-1978.

Bacigalupi, Louis

California. Made barrel and paper roll-operated organs, mostly portable hand-cranked models, 1907-1957. Member of the Bacigalupo family of Berlin; changed his surname after moving to the United States.

B.A.B. Organ Company

Brooklyn, NY. Founded by Evaristo Bona, Andrew Antoniazzi, and Dominick Brugnolotti, whose initials comprised the firm’s name. The firm serviced street pianos and fairground organs, circa 1912-1958. Converted many pinned cylinder organs to cardboard music or paper rolls; arranged and perforated both types of music. Took over the assets of G. Molinari & Sons in 1939.

Automatic Musical Company

Binghamton, NY. Established in 1903, reorganized as the Link Piano Company in 1916. Made coin-operated pianos in keyboard and keyboardless styles. In its early years, produced a roll-operated xylophone.

Automatic Music Roll Company

Chicago, IL. Brand name used by the J.P. Seeburg Piano Company, 1916-1928, for selling coin piano and orchestrion rolls supplied by the coin-operated division of the QRS company.

Auto-Manufacturing Company

Boston, MA. Name for the reorganized New England Automatic Banjo Co., 1899, also listed in this Appendix.

Auto Orchestra

Orchestrions made by Berry-Wood Piano Player Co., Kansas City, MO, circa 1907-late ‘teens.

Artizan Factories, Inc.

North Tonawanda, NY. Established in 1922 by former employees of the North Tonawanda Musical Instrument Works. Made band organs and air calliopes.


Paper roll-operated music boxes invented by Oliver H. Arno and made by the Massachusetts Organ Co., circa late 1880s.


Dance organs made by Arthur Bursens of Belgium, also listed in this Appendix.


Name given to several different models of reproducing piano mechanisms installed by the American Piano Co. in its many lines of pianos, 1912-1932, and then by Aeolian-American, 1932-1938.

Amphion Piano Player Company

Syracuse, NY. Made player piano mechanisms circa 1903-1938. Made player piano and Ampico reproducing piano mechanisms for American Piano Co. from 1917 onward. Acquired by the American Piano Company by the early 1920s.

American Piano Company

New York City, 1908-1932. Made pianos, player pianos, and reproducing pianos. Incorporated by G.C. Foster and W.B. Armstrong of the Foster-Armstrong Co. in 1908. Acquired Chickering & Sons ( Boston) and William Knabe & Co. (Baltimore) in 1908, J. & C. Fischer (New York City) in 1920, and the Mason & Hamlin Co. (Boston) in 1922. Foster-Armstrong also owned Haines Bros., Marshall & Wendell Piano Co., Franklin Piano Co., Foster & Co., Armstrong Piano Co., Brewster Piano Co., the Amphion Co. (maker of player mechanisms, established 1903, acquired by American Piano Co. circa early 1920s), the East Rochester Iron Works, and the Ampico Corp. Merged with the Aeolian Co. in 1932 to form the Aeolian American Corporation.

American Photo Player Company

Berkeley, CA. Made Fotoplayer brand theatre photoplayers, circa 1912-1925. Became part of the Robert-Morton Company in 1917. In 1925, the name was changed to the Robert Morton Organ Company, and operations were consolidated in Van Nuys, CA. The firm became one of America’s largest makers of theatre pipe organs, second only to Wurlitzer.

American Automusic Company

New York City. Name for the reorganized American Automatic Banjo Co. of New Jersey, 1899, also listed in this Appendix.

American Automatic Banjo Company of New Jersey

New York City. One of two makers of the Encore Automatic Banjo, incorporated in 1896. In 1899, reorganized as the American Automusic Co. Continued in business into the early 1900s. Owned territorial rights to New York, and the rest of the United States not covered by the New England Automatic Banjo Co., also listed in this Appendix.

Allard & Cie

Geneva, Switzerland. Made high quality cylinder music boxes, circa 1882-1909.

Agassi, Franz

Vienna. Maker of cylinder musical boxes, about 1900, early 20th century (?), mentioned 1924.

Aeolian Company

New York City, 1878-1932. Branches in London and many other cities. One of America’s largest piano and organ manufacturers. Founded in 1878 as the Mechanical Orguinette Co., sold small tabletop organettes (1878-c. 1910), player reed organs (1883-early 1910s), and Pianola push-up piano players (1899-c. 1905). Organized as the Aeolian Organ & Music Co., in 1887. Reorganized as the Aeolian Co. under the parent entity Aeolian Weber Piano and Pianola Co., 1908. Sold Pianola player pianos and Duo-Art reproducing pianos in its piano brands and Steinway pianos (Pianola circa 1905-early 1930s; Duo-Art 1914-1932), pipe organs (1894-1932), player pipe organs (1895-1932) and Duo-Art reproducing pipe organs (1915-1932). Player and reproducing piano sales were very limited after 1929. Owned the Weber Piano Co.; Geo. Steck & Co.; Wheelock Piano Co.; Stuyvesant Piano Co.; Chilton Piano Co.; Technola Piano Co.; Vocalion Organ Co.; Votey Organ Co.; Aeolian Co., Ltd., of Great Britain; and Aeolian Co., Ltd., of Australia. Also owned Melodee Music Co. and Universal Music Co. (music rolls). Merged with the American Piano Co. in 1932 to form the Aeolian American Corporation.

Aeolian American Corporation

East Rochester, NY. Formed by the merger of the Aeolian Co. and the American Piano Co. in August 1932. Continued to make Chickering & Sons, J. & C. Fischer, Wm. Knabe & Co., Mason & Hamlin, George Steck, Weber, and other piano brands. The company installed Ampico and Duo-Art reproducing mechanisms in these pianos on a very limited basis until the late 1930s. The last Ampico mechanisms were installed in spinet pianos known as “Baby Ampicos,” introduced in 1938. The last Ampico rolls were made at the factory in 1941. Several other firms have made recut and new Ampico rolls since then. Aeolian-American was acquired in 1959 by Winter & Co., owner of many other old piano brand names, which had resumed production of spinet player pianos in 1957. Renamed the Aeolian Corporation, and then Aeolian Pianos, Inc. in 1980, it continued to make pianos and spinet player pianos under a variety of brand names until its bankruptcy in 1985. The Chickering brand name was then acquired by the Wurlitzer Co.


Disc music boxes made in Germany by J.H. Zimmerman, 1896-early 1900s. Name used interchangeably with Fortuna.

Abrahams, B.H.

St. Croix, Switzerland. Made inexpensive cylinder music boxes, circa 1857-1900; Britannia and Imperial disc music boxes, 1898-early 1900s. Also used the name B.H.A.