Lador SA

Lador SA was founded by Adrian Lador in the late 19th century. They produced exclusively small movements of the 12, 18, 22 ,28 ,36 and 50 note types. They were taken over by Reuge in 1985 after going out of business.


Oak disc cabinet with eleven and a half inch discs. Has manufacturer name etched in glass inside cabinet also name
in metal within cabinet.

Also made mechanical zither and player organ and piano orchestrion

Zimmerman, J.H.

Leipzig, Germany; branch factories in Moscow and St. Petersburg (Leningrad), Russia. Maker of Adler and Fortuna disc music boxes, circa late 1800s-early 1900s.

Wyskocil, Josef

Vienna. Maker of musical movements of typical Austrian format, successor to Josef Olbrich, 1882-1905.

Wurlitzer, Rudolph, Co.

Rudolph Wurlitzer founded the company in 1856 in Cincinnati, OH, as a musical instrument retailer, selling all types of instruments. The Wurlitzer Co. was the country’s leading distributor of Regina music boxes (1890s), exclusive distributor of J.D. Philipps orchestrions (1903-1914), the country’s largest distributor and then a major manufacturer of coin pianos, orchestrions, and photoplayers (late 1890s-late 1920s), band organs (late 1890s-1930s), and theatre organs (late ‘teens-1929). The manufacturing division in North Tonawanda, NY, was called the Rudolph Wurlitzer Manufacturing Co. In the 1920s, Wurlitzer’s coin piano and orchestrion sales were overtaken by the J.P. Seeburg Piano Co. In the 1940s, Wurlitzer took the lead with its colorful new jukeboxes, to be overtaken by Seeburg again in the 1950s. After WWII, Wurlitzer was also a leading producer of hand-played pianos (mainly for the home market), electronic pianos, modern spinet player pianos and organs. Piano and electronic keyboard production was sold to the Baldwin Piano and Organ Co. in 1988. At the time of this printing, a Wurlitzer factory in Germany continues to build adaptations of the famous 1946 jukebox, the Model 1015. The current version plays audio CDs.


Hanover-Kleefeld, Germany. Made fairground organs (1890-early 1930s) and portable hand-cranked organs (1890-1944).

Whitlock, J.W. & Co.

Rising Sun, IN. Developer and subcontract manufacturer of the Wurlitzer Automatic Harp, 1905-1911, and paper rolls for it.

Western Electric Piano Company

Chicago, IL. Made coin pianos and a few small keyboardless orchestrions, 1924-1928; a few early jukeboxes, 1928-early 1930s. A secretly-owned subsidiary of the J.P. Seeburg Piano Company with no connection to the Western Electric telephone equipment firm.

Welte, M., & Söhne

Vöhrenbach, Germany (1832-1872); Freiburg, Germany (1872-1950); sales office in New York City (opened 1906); factory in Poughkeepsie, NY (1913-1917). Manufactured flute clocks and barrel orchestrions (early years), roll-operated orchestrions (c.1887-1920s), pipe organs (1900-WWII; mostly between 1913-1929), reproducing pianos (1904-1929). Also marketed a few fairground organs and coin pianos. One of the world’s most important automatic musical manufacturing companies.

Wellershaus, Gebrüder

Saarn a/d Ruhr, Germany. Made portable hand-cranked and fairground organs, late 19th century-1944.


Vöhrenbach, Germany. Made barrel organs, late 19th century. August Weber (who later founded Gebr. Weber, Waldkircher Orchestrionfabrik) apprenticed there.

Weber, Gebrüder, Waldkircher Orchestrionfabrik

Waldkirch, Germany, 1883-early 1930s. Made barrel and then cardboard-operated organs (early years); then roll-operated electric pianos and orchestrions (from 1904 on) that are highly regarded for their exceptional musicality, due to their excellent design and music roll arrangements.

Weber Piano Company

New York City. Made fine quality pianos, established in 1851. Acquired by the Aeolian Co. in 1903. Next to the Steinway, the Weber was the finest piano in which the Aeolian Co. installed its Duo-Art reproducing mechanism.


Brand name used by Lyon & Healy, musical instrument retailer of Chicago, IL, on coin pianos made by Nelson-Wiggen, circa 1920s, and regular pianos as late as the 1960s.

Wagner & Levine

Mexico City and Puebla, Mexico. Major musical instrument retailer, circa late 19th century-present. Sold music boxes, organettes, barrel organs, player and reproducing pianos, orchestrions, and a complete line of musical instruments.

von Kleist, Eugen

Original name of Eugene deKleist, founder of the North Tonawanda Barrel Organ Factory, later called the deKleist Musical Instrument Manufacturing Co., acquired by the Rudolph Wurlitzer Co. in 1909.

Voigt, Heinrich

Höchst (Frankfurt), Germany. Successor to A. Ruth & Sohn, Waldkirch, in 1938. Remodeled and repaired fairground organs and made cardboard music books and paper rolls. His grandson continues the business today.


Automatic pianos with violin pipes, made by Gebrüder Weber Orchestrionfabrik, Waldkirch, Germany


Automatic pianos with real violin(s), made by the Mills Novelty Company, Chicago, IL, circa 1909-1930. (Mills marketed the violin-only Automatic Virtuosa by 1906).


Coin pianos made by the Operators Piano Co., Chicago, IL, circa 1909-1912.


Four generations of family members have built and repaired portable hand-cranked organs, street organs (including the world-famous Dutch street organ “The Arab”), fairground organs, and dance organs since 1884. Business names have included Jan Verbeeck (1884-1914, Antwerp, Belgium); J. Verbeeck & Sons (Birmingham, then London, England, 1914-1949); Pierre Verbeeck (Antwerp, Belgium, 1918-1938); Verbekson (Deurne, Belgium, 1944-1947); and Verbeeck Zoon (St. Job-in-‘t-Goor, Belgium, 1965-1979). Johnny Verbeeck and his wife Marijke have operated the business in St. Job-in-‘t-Goor under the name J. Verbeeck since 1979.

van Steenput Frères

Puurs, Belgium. Built and converted fairground and street organs circa 1890-1930.

van den Bosch, René

Antwerp, Belgium. Acquired Mortier’s remaining parts when that firm went out of business in 1952; continued building dance organs and electronic dance organs for several years.


Cardboard strip-operated music boxes made circa late 19th century.


Germany. Produced from the 1890’s to the early 1900’s by B. Grosz & Co., Leipzig. Several models were available playing disc sizes of 18, 22.5, 30, and 52 cm. They were sold in relatively small quantities compared with major disc box manufacturers and very few Troubadours survive today.

Troll, S.

Geneva, Switzerland. Made fine quality cylinder music boxes, 1868-1889


Reproducing pianos made by Ludwig Hupfeld, A.G., Leipzig, Germany, circa late ‘teens-1930.

Tangley Company

Muscatine, IA. Made “Calliaphone” air calliopes, 1914-c. late 1920s. Brand name currently used on new calliopes made by the Miner Manufacturing Co., Donnellson, IA.

Symphonion Musikwerke

Leipzig, Germany, 1885-late 1920s. One of Germany’s largest manufacturers of disc music boxes; also sold automatic pianos and phonographs after the early 1900s.

Symphonion Manufacturing Co.

Bradley Beach, NJ. American branch of the Symphonion Musikwerke; made Imperial Symphonion disc music boxes circa 1895-1900.


Brand name for many different types of orchestrion rolls made by Eugene DeRoy, Antwerp, Belgium, circa 1920s-1960s.

Stern, Brüder

Vienna. Makers of musical movements of typical Austrian format, ca. 1870.


Disc music boxes made by Mermod Frères, St. Croix, Switzerland, 1890s-early 1900s.

Steinway & Sons

New York City, 1853-present; Hamburg, Germany, 1880-present. Widely considered to be one of the world’s foremost pianos; the finest brand in which the Aeolian Co. installed its Duo-Art reproducing mechanism.

Steck, George, & Company

New York City. Made pianos. Established in 1857. Acquired by the Aeolian Co. in 1903. A popular Duo-Art reproducing piano brand.

Slawik & Preissler

Prague. Makers of musical movements of typical Austrian format, similar to those of Rzebitschek, ca. 1859.


Disc music boxes made in Dresden, Germany, 1890s-early 1900s. One model shifts the disc laterally at the end of each revolution, playing two tunes per disc.

Seybold, René

Strasbourg, France. Made accordion-playing machines, some with piano and/or drums, which realistically duplicated the playing of a live accordionist, circa 1920s and 30s.

Seeburg, J.P., Piano Company

Chicago, IL. Made coin pianos and orchestrions, 1907-1928. America’s largest manufacturer during the 1920s. Renamed the J.P. Seeburg Company in 1928 and then J.P. Seeburg Corporation in 1929; made jukeboxes, vending machines and other products until March 1980. Modern companies using the Seeburg trademark have made jukeboxes and computers.

Schidlo, Karl

Vienna. Maker of cylinder movements of typical Austrian format. 1856-?.

Schidlo, Anton

Vienna. Maker of cylinder movements of typical Austrian format, 1854-?.

Schönstein, Gustav

Villingen, Germany. Supplied pipework to German orchestrion builders, circa 1900-1920s.

Salisch, Johann

Prague, Josefov. Maker or distributor of musical movements of typical Austrian format mostly installed in clock bases, together with Anton Nowak ca. 1860.


(from around 1870 on was spelled řebiček), Franz. Maker of musical movements who won several prizes for his boxes and musical movements in world exhibitions. Movements were made in typical Austrian format with bass notes on the right side and next to the governor. These musical movements were made mostly for clocks and can be found in the Austrian style of clocks, 1828-1870. In cooperation with Alois Willenbacher until 1842.


(from around 1870 on spelled řebiček), Gustav. Son of Franz Rzebitschek. Successor to Franz Rzebitschek making musical movements of typical Austrian format primarily for musical clock bases, 1870-1897.

Ruth, A., & Sohn

Waldkirch, Germany, circa 1840s-1940. One of Germany’s premier builders of hand-cranked barrel organs from 1870 to 1900, and fairground organs, with most being built circa 1900-1914. The firm was taken over by Heinrich Voigt (Frankfurt, Germany) whose grandson continues to repair organs and manufacture cardboard book music today.

Roullet & Decamps

Paris, France. Major manufacturer of automata, many with musical movements, circa late 1860s-present. After the 1920s, the spring-operated mechanisms were replaced with electric motors. Founder Jean Roullet’s great-granddaughter Cosette and her husband Georges Bellancourt operate the firm today.

Roepke & Co., Ltd.

Manchester, England. Made cardboard strip-operated music boxes, circa late 1890s.

Richter, Gebrüder

Düsseldorf, Germany, 1868-1945. Made hand-cranked barrel organs until circa 1900, and book-operated fairground organs thereafter.

Resotone Grand Company

New York City. Made the Resotone Grand, an automatic celesta, in the early years of the 20th century.


Small photoplayers and mortuary organs made by the Operators Piano Company, Chicago, IL, circa mid ‘teens-late 1920s.


Combination disc music box/ disc phonographs made by the Regina Music Box Co.

Regina Music Box Company

Rahway, NJ, 1892-1921. America’s largest maker of disc music boxes, selling about 100,000 mainly from 1892 through the mid ‘teens. Sponsored by the Polyphon Musikwerke in Leipzig, Germany. Also made cylinder phonographs, combination disc music box/ disc phonographs, and musical clocks. Sold mechanical pianos and a few pneumatically-played coin pianos. Made floor polishers and vacuum cleaners starting in 1924. The brand name is still used today.

Racca, G.

Bologna, Italy. Maker of the Piano Melodica, a popular cardboard book-operated mechanical piano for home use, circa 1886-1910.

QRS Music Co.

DeKalb, IL, and other locations, 1919-present. Founded as a subsidiary of the Melville Clark Piano Co. in 1900, QRS eventually became America’s largest maker of player piano rolls. Its coin-operated division made coin piano and orchestrion rolls for Operators Piano Co., Marquette Piano Co., J.P. Seeburg Piano Co., and others. Melville Clark’s brother, Ernest G. Clark, was instrumental in developing the roll-making equipment for QRS. QRS was acquired by Tom Pletcher in 1918, moved to Chicago circa 1919, with branches in New York City and San Francisco during the 1920s. Acquired by Max Kortlander and moved to New York City in 1931. Acquired by Ramsi Tick and moved to Buffalo, NY, in 1966. (For related companies, see Melville Clark Piano Co. and Clark Orchestra Roll Co.)


Prague. Around 1859. See Slawik & Preissler.

Popper & Co.

Leipzig, Germany, 1890s-c. 1930. One of Germany’s leading makers of barrel pianos and orchestrions (1890s-mid ‘teens), roll-operated electric pianos and orchestrions (early 1900s-1930).

Pomero, P. & Co.

809-811 Federal St., Philadelphia, PA. Manufacturer of hand-cranked and coin-operated mechanical pianos, orchestrions and other instruments, 1894 through early 1900s.

Polyphon Musikwerke

Leipzig, Germany, 1887-1930s. The world’s largest manufacturer of disc music boxes; the period of greatest popularity was from 1895-1905. At one time the firm employed over 1,000 people. In later years, sold mechanical pianos, pneumatically-played pianos, phonographs, and other items. Helped found the Regina Music Box Company in the U.S.

Pollmann, August

New York City. Sales agent and importer for many types of musical instruments, including Frati barrel organs, circa late 1800s-early 1900s.

Pianova Company

New York City. Made 44-note coin pianos, circa 1900-1910.


Brand name for push-up piano players and player pianos made by the Aeolian Co., New York City.

Piano Melodico

Cardboard book-operated mechanical pianos made by G. Racca of Bologna, Italy, circa 1886-1910.


Brand name for electric pianos and orchestrions made by J.D. Philipps & Söhne, Frankfurt, Germany.


Expression pianos made by Ludwig Hupfeld, A.G., Leipzig, Germany, circa 1904-1930.


Automatic piano with real violins, made by Ludwig Hupfeld, A.G., Leipzig, Germany, circa 1908-1930.


Brand name for push-up piano players and player pianos made by Ludwig Hupfeld, A.G., Leipzig, Germany, circa late 1890s-1930.

Philipps, J.D., & Söhne

Frankfurt, Germany. Made barrel pianos and orchestrions circa 1880s-1890s. Major manufacturer of Pianella electric pianos and orchestrions, Paganini solo violin pipe orchestrions, and Duca reproducing pianos, circa 1900s-1930.

Philadelphia Toboggan Co.

Philadelphia, PA. Produced carousels, 1903-1933, and other amusement rides and equipment to the present. Distributed many European and American fairground and band organs.

Peerless Piano Player Company

(Roth & Engelhardt; Engelhardt Piano Co.; National Music Roll Co.; National Piano Player Co.; National Electric Piano Co.) St. Johnsville, NY. One of America’s pioneer makers of coin pianos, orchestrions, and rolls circa 1890-1915. Acquired the Seybold Piano Co. of Elgin, IL circa 1914, declared bankruptcy in 1915. Frederick Kornburst, a former employee, continued making music rolls in the Peerless factory building under the name National Music Roll Co., and in the 1920s organized the National Electric Player Piano Co., manufacturing coin pianos and orchestrions.

Parker, C.W.

Leavenworth, KS. Made carousels and other amusement rides; major distributor of fairground and band organs circa early 1900s-1930. Imported Frati and Gebr. Bruder organs in the early years, and later sold Wurlitzer band organs and Tangley calliopes.


Ste-Croix, Switzerland. Several generations of family members made fine quality cylinder music boxes, 1813-early 1900s. The Paillard family made several important developments in cylinder box design and manufacturing, including improvements in tune changing, interchangeable cylinders, and the revolver box.

Otto, F.G., and Sons

Jersey City, NJ. Made Criterion and Olympia disc music boxes, Capital cuff music boxes, and the Pianette disc piano 1875-c. 1908.


Disc music boxes made by Bruno Rückert, Leipzig, Germany, late 1890s.


Player reed organs made by the Aeolian Co., New York City, 1883-early 1900s.

Operators Piano Company

Chicago, IL. Made many different models of coin pianos and orchestrions, circa 1909-late 1920s. Brand names included Victor (early) and Coinola; also Reproduco theatre and mortuary roll-operated piano/organs.


Disc music boxes made by F.G. Otto & Sons, Jersey City, NJ, 1898-early 1900s.

Olbrich, Josef

Vienna. 1850-1875. Brother of Anton Olbrich Sr., maker of cylinder movements in typical Austrian format. In cooperation with Anton Olbrich Sr. before 1860.

Olbrich Sr., Anton

Vienna. 1821-1865. Maker of cylinder movements in typical Austrian format. In cooperation with Joseph Olbrich before 1860.

Olbrich Jr., Anton

Vienna. Maker of musical movements in typical Austrian format mostly found in Austrian musical clocks, 1868-1892.

Nowak, Anton

Prague, Josefov. Maker or distributor of musical movements of typical Austrian format mostly installed in clock bases, together with Johann Salisch ca. 1860.

North Tonawanda Barrel Organ Factory

North Tonawanda, NY. Founded by Eugene deKleist in 1893. Made barrel organs, mainly for the amusement industry. Eugene deKleist’s use of brass trumpets, clarinets, and piccolos established the “American style” of band organ through the late 1910s. Name changed to the deKleist Musical Instrument Manufacturing Co. in 1897 when its product line was expanded to supply the Rudolph Wurlitzer Co. of Cincinnati with its first coin pianos.

Nicole Frères

Geneva, Switzerland. Made fine quality cylinder music boxes, 1815-1881. Moved to London in 1881, distributed cylinder boxes made by others, and Polyphon and Regina disc boxes until the early 1900s.

New England Automatic Banjo Company

Boston, MA. One of two makers of the Encore Automatic Banjo. Established in 1896; reorganized as the Auto-Manufacturing Co. in 1899. Continued in business until the early 1900s. Owned territorial rights to Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont.

New Century

Disc music boxes which appear to have been made in Switzerland. Introduced in 1902, but had a very limited distributorship. Distributed in the United States by Imperial Symphonion. One model shifts the disc laterally at the end of each revolution, playing two tunes per disc.

National Automatic Music Co.

(National Piano Mfg. Co.) Grand Rapids, MI. Made coin pianos, circa 1909-mid 1920s, featuring an automatic roll changing mechanism that enabled patrons to select the next tune. Continued in business making jukeboxes under the name Automatic Musical Instrument Co. (AMI), predecessor to today’s Rowe-AMI.