(Kohler Industries; Kohler & Campbell Industries) New York City, 1896-c. 1930. An industrial giant, which controlled Autopiano and other piano companies, the Auto Pneumatic Action Co. (founded circa 1900; incorporated 1909), the Standard Pneumatic Action Co. (c. 1910), and the Republic Player Roll Corporation and DeLuxe Reproducing Roll Corporation (1918). The Auto Pneumatic Action Co. supplied Ampico reproducing piano mechanisms to the American Piano Company, 1912-1917, and to M. Welte & Sons for “Red Welte” (12 7/8″ T-100) reproducing pianos made in the United States, circa 1910-1918. Auto Pneumatic also made mechanisms for the Auto Deluxe Welte-Mignon (using 11¼” 9 per inch rolls) sold in over 100 piano brands. In 1917 the Standard Pneumatic Action Co. employed 600 people and manufactured about 800 player actions per week. Production ceased about 1930. After World War II, Kohler Industries made hand-played pianos, eventually moving to Granite Falls, NC. Piano production ceased circa 1980s.