Leipzig, Germany. The world’s largest manufacturer of automatic pianos and orchestrions, 1892-1930; made rolls for a few more years. Founded in 1892 when Ludwig Hupfeld took over J.M. Grob & Co. Eventually employed over 2,500 people in several factories, the largest including about one million square feet of floor space. Made Phonola push-up piano players and player pianos, Phonoliszt expression pianos, DEA and Triphonola reproducing pianos; Universal, Clavitist, Helios, Pan, Animatic, and Symphony Jazz orchestrions; Phonoliszt-Violina and Violina Orchestra violin players, among other instruments. Also made rolls for all of these instruments. Discontinued making automatic instruments circa 1930 and music rolls circa 1934. The company has continued to make hand-played pianos to the present.