Leipzig-Eutritzsch, Germany. Art shop which began selling automatic instruments in 1882 and manufacturing them in 1883. Developed an autoharp, the reiterating mandolin mechanism for street pianos, and self-playing mechanisms for pianos and organs. Sales agent for Ariston organettes. Taken over by Ludwig Hupfeld in 1892, to become the world’s largest manufacturer of automatic pianos and orchestrions.