Paris, France. Made the Pianista, one of the first push-up piano players that worked on pneumatic principles, 1863-1870s. As large as an upright piano, the Pianista had fingers that played the keys of a piano. Music was programmed on a pinned cylinder, but the pins actuated small valves that controlled a pneumatic player action as in most roll-operated player pianos. The mechanism was powered by a hand crank. Also patented an early cardboard-operated key frame; Gavioli et Cie., (Paris) bought the patent and adapted its principles to the fairground organ.