1. The musical note played by a piano string, organ pipe, xylophone bar or other tuned instrument or voice; e.g., C, C#, D, etc. 2. The tuning standard or reference used for tuning an instrument; e.g., if an instrument is tuned to A=435 hz, the note A above middle C plays at 435 vibrations per second. 3. The octave at which a rank of pipes is connected to a manual in a pipe organ. Middle C on the keyboard plays middle C on a rank of pipes at 8′ pitch; the same key plays C one octave below on a rank at 16′ pitch, or one octave above at 4’4. The octave at which a rank of pipes is tuned in an organ or orchestrion. In an orchestrion, pipes tuned to 8′ pitch speak the same notes as the piano notes to which they are connected. Pipes at 4′ pitch speak an octave higher, at 16′ pitch, an octave lower, etc. In a fairground organ, for example, the melody division violin pipes play at 8′ pitch, and the melody unda maris pipes at 16′ pitch (an octave lower). The countermelody cello, baritone, or saxophone speak at 8′ pitch, and the vox celeste pipes at 4′ pitch (an octave higher). Most Weber Otero and Seeburg G orchestrions include a rank of 4′ harmonic flutes or piccolos, adding a bright, cheerful sound to the music.